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Al-Amnu Wa al-‘Ulā Li Nā`iti al-Mustafā Bi Dāfi`i al-Balā

Safety And Greatness For Those Who Describe The Chosen One As The Eliminator Of Difficulty

An indepth and detailed explanation of Salawaatul Taajiyya or Darood Taj and

the phrase Dāfi`i al-Balā The Eliminator of Difficulty contained therein

by al-Shaykh Imām Ahmad Ridā Khān al-Barelwī

All of the Islamic Books are embedded in PFD format. Please click "read more" to view

Read more: Safety And Greatness For Those Who Describe The Chosen One As The Eliminator Of Difficulty

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Salaatul Tarawih: Eight or Twenty Raka’ah?

By Ahmed ibn Muhammad

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim

Wa Sall Allahu ta ‘ala ‘alaa Sayyidina wa Mawlanaa Muhammadin wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa Sahbihi wa Sallam

 

In a handout by some misguided people, there appeared the following question and answer (No. 22):

(a) Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) reports that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) never prayed more than 8 rak’aats in Taraweeh, so how come nobody disapproves of 20?

(b) Is it true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) introduced it?

Answer:

(a) As regards the Taraweeh prayer – people agree that the Sunnah of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and the best way is 11 rak’aats. As regards any addition – then this is DISAPPROVED of and DECLARED AS A BID’AH (A bad innovation).

(b) It is not true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) either prayed or ordered 20 rak’aats. Rather he ordered Ubayy ibn Ka’b to lead the people with 11 rak’aats (al-Muwatta 1/137, with a Sahih Isnad).

It should be said that the vast MAJORITY of the scholars of Hadith, Fiqh, and even the four Mujtahid Imams are in agreement that 20 rak’ahs are the most appropriate, followed by 3 rak’ahs of Witr.

First, it should be said that the Hadith reported from Sayyidah Aisha (Radhi Allahu Anhaa) about 11 rak’ahs is not at all to do with Taraweeh, according to the majority of scholars, but in fact concerns the number of rak’ahs of TAHAJJUD prayer! The Hadith in question is as follows:-

Narrated Abu Salama ibn Abdur Rahman that he asked Aisha (Allah be pleased with her), “How was the prayer of Allah’s Apostle (Peace be upon him) in Ramadan?” She replied, “He did not pray more than eleven raka’at in Ramadan or in any other month. He used to pray four raka’at – let alone their beauty and length – and then he would pray four – let alone their beauty and length – and then he would pray three rak’aat (witr).” She added, “I asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you sleep before praying the Witr?’ He replied, ‘O Aisha, My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.'” (Bukhari, 3/230, English edn)

According to the author of “Fatawa Rahimiyyah“, Mufti Abdur Rahim Lajpuri (vol. 1, pg. 275); in his defence of 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh: “The commentator of al-Sahih al-Bukhari and the erudite traditionist, Shaykh Shamsud-Din al-Kermani (d. 786 AH; Rahimahullah) said: ‘In the Hadith (above), the Tahajjud prayer is meant. Abu Salama’s question and Hadrat Aisha’s answer concerned the Tahajjud.’ He adds further: ‘If the Tahajjud prayer is not meant, then this tradition will be at variance with the tradition that states that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty rak’ahs each for two nights, and in the case of such clash the tradition of twenty rakah’s which is affirmative (muthbit) shall have precedence because according to the principles of Hadith, the affirmative takes precedence over the negative (naaf)” (vide: Al-Kawakib ud-Durari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 9, pg 155-156). We say, does this not mean that people who perform 8 rak’ahs of Taraweeh, should pray 20 rak’ahs instead? Since according to the principles of Hadith, “The affirmative takes precedence over the negative in certain cases.”

A great fact that should also be noted by the reader is that the Imam’s of Hadith have placed the Hadith from Sayyidah Aisha (Radhi Allahu Anha) under the section of Tahajjud prayers, which indicates their belief that the Hadith applies to Tahajjud only. The Imam al-Muhaddithin al-Bukhari (Radhi Allahu ta’ala Anhu) has placed the Hadith from Sayyidah Aisha under at least two sections of his Sahih, first under the section of ’21: The Tahajjud Prayer at Night’ (see Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, chapter 15, no. 248, English ed’n) and then under the section of ’32: The Book of Taraweeh Prayers‘ (see Sahih al-Bukhari, 3/230, pg. 128 English ed’n). This means that al-Imam Bukhari believed that the prayer mentioned by Aisha was that of Tahajjud only, and since the Tahajjud prayer is performed also in Ramadan, then Imam Bukhari also quoted the same Hadith under ‘The book of Taraweeh prayers‘, but Allah knows best. Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has also placed the Hadith from Aisha under the Tahajjud prayer section (see Sahih Muslim 1/1607, pg. 356, English ed’n). Also Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has placed Sayyidah Aisha’s Hadith under the Book of Tahajjud (see Al-Muwatta, Book 7, section 7.2, no. 9, pg. 5, English ed’n). Al-Imam Abi Dawud (Rahimahullah) has also placed the same Hadith under the chapter ‘On the number of Rak’ahs of the prayer at night (Tahajjud)’ (see Abi Dawud 1/1336, pg. 351, English version). Even Imam’s Tirmidhi and Nisai (Allah’s mercy be upon them) placed Aisha’s Hadith under the Tahajjud section (see Tirmidhi, vol. 1, pg. 58 and Nisai, vol. 1, pg.154).

Read more: Salaatul Tarawih: Eight or Twenty Raka’ah?

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The Prophet’s Parents Are Saved

Imam Jalaluddin al-Suyuti

Translated by Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad

Released by www.marifah.net 1428 H

Reprinted with permission from http://www.marifah.net

This writing concerns the question of the ruling (hukm) that the father and mother of The Prophet (Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) are (believed to be) saved and not in Hellfire. This has been declared by the majority of the scholars, and in reaching that declaration they have several methods (masalik).

FIRST

His parents died before he was sent as Prophet, and there is no punishment for them as “We never punish until We send a messenger (and they reject him)” (17:15). Our Ash`ari Imams of those in kalam, usul, and Shafi`i fiqh agree on the statement that one who dies while da’wa has not reached him, dies saved. This has been defined by Imam Shafi`i . . . and some of the fuqaha’ have explained that the reason is that that person is on fitra (primordial disposition), and has not stubbornly refused nor rejected any Messenger.

That is the position of our Shaykh, Shaykh al-Islam Sharafuddin al-Munawi, as I received it. He was once asked whether the Prophet’s father was in the fire and he groaned loudly at the questioner. The latter insisted: “Is his Islam established?” and he answered that he died in fitra and quoted the verse.

It is the position of Ahl al-Sunnah and it was opposed by the Mu`tazila and those who follow them among those who say that one is condemned because Allah is known rationally. It is also the position of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani who said, The (proper) conjecture (zann) concerning his parents, meaning also all those who died before his Messengership, is that they shall obey (his call) at the time of their examination (in the grave), as a gift (from Allah) to please him.

This method is based on the following sources:

[Evidence from the Qur’an]

• The aforementioned verse. (17:15)

• The verse, “Your Lord does not unjustly (bi zulm) destroy the townships while their people are unconscious (of the wrong they do)” (6:131). Al-Zarkashi adduced it to illustrate the rule (qa`ida) that one thanks Allah through hearing (about Him), not through rational induction.

• The verse, “Otherwise . . . they might say, Our Lord! Why sentest Thou no messenger unto us, that we might have followed Thy revelations and be among the believers?” (28:47) Adduced by Zarkashi and Ibn Abi Hatim in their tafsirs. The latter adds the Hadith, “Those who die in fitra will say, My Lord, no book nor messenger reached me, and he recited his verse.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

• The verse, “And if We had destroyed them with some punishment before it [your coming], they would assuredly have said: Our Lord! If only Thou hadst sent unto us a messenger, so that we might have followed . . .” (20:134)

Read more: The Prophet’s Parents Are Saved

Concerning the mistaken doctrine of those who maintain that the day of ‘Ashura

should be regarded as a day of tragic misfortune.

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[Excerpt from Ghunya lit Taalibi Tariqal Haqq: Sufficient Provision for the Seeker of the Path of Truth]

By Sayyidina Shayhk 'Abdul Qadir al Jilani al Baghdadi Radhi Allahu 'anhu

Certain people have been harshly critical of those who fast on this glorious day, and of the exaltation traditionally held to be its due. They maintain that it is not permissible to observe it as a day of fasting, on the grounds that it is the day on which al-Husain ibn 'Ali (Radhi Allahu ‘anhu and with his father) was slain. They state their case in the following terms:

"What is right and proper, on that day, is that the sense of calamitous loss should be experienced by the general mass of the people, since it is the day on which his tragic death occurred. But you prefer to celebrate it as the day of happiness and joy. You declare it to be the day for treating one's dependents with special generosity, for much liberal expenditure, and for making charitable donations [Sadaqa] to the poor, the weak and the needy. Yet this is not the kind of respect that is rightfully due to al-Husain (Radhi Allahu ‘anhu) from the community of the Muslims."

Whoever makes this statement is in error, and his doctrine [madhhab] is repugnant and unsound. We can dismiss it as such, because Allah (Exalted is He) chose martyrdom [shahada] for the grandson of our Prophet Muhammad (Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim) on the most noble of all the days, the most glorious of them, the most majestic of them, and the most exalted of them in His sight. In so doing, His purpose was to grant him increased elevation in His degrees and His tokens of special favor [karamat], over and above the special favor he already enjoyed. By way of martyrdom [shahada], He caused him to reach the stations of the rightly guided Caliphs who died as martyrs [al-Khulafa' ar-rashideen ash-shuhada'].

Read more: Concerning the mistaken doctrine of those who maintain that the day of ‘Ashura should be regarded...

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Bid’ah a Detailed Explanation

THE WORD BID'AH AS MENTIONED IN THE HOLY QURAN

The literary meaning of "Bid'ah" (in the dictionary) is "innovation novelty." In the following lines we see where in the Holy Quran this word has been used and the meaning with which it is associated:

Says Allah (Azza wa jalla) in the Holy Quran:

"Say I am no Bringer of New Fangled Doctrine among the Apostles." (al-Ahqaf: 9)

and He (Azza wa jalla) says:

"The Originator of the Heavens and the Earth." (al-Baqarah: 117)

and He (Azza wa jalla) says:

"But monasticism (which) they inverted. We ordained it not for them." (al-Hadid: 23)

In these Ayahs from the Holy Quran the word Bid'ah has been used in it's literary meaning. It's definition in the technical language of the Sharee'ah is different. In the Holy Quran it has been used to mean "to invent" and "to create" a new thing", whereas it's technical meaning is an written in the book Mirqat (under Babul I'tisaam bil Kitaab was-Sunnah) - "that belief or action which was not in practice during the blessed age of Rasoolullah (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) but was introduced after him." From this we see that Bid'ah is of two kinds:

A. Bid'ah I'tiqaadi (innovation in belief)

B. Bid'ah Amali (innovation in action)

THE TWO TYPES OF BID'AH

Now let us see the difference between Bid'ah I'tiqaadi and Bid'ah Amali.

BID'AH I'TIQAADI (INNOVATION IN BELIEF)

Is that new belief (which is in contradiction with the Holy Quran and Sunnah) which found its way into Islam after the blessed age of the Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). Christianity, Judaism, Zoroasterism and Polytheism are not Bid'ah I'tiqaadi as these beliefs were in practice before and during the blessed time and also because they do not claim themselves to be Muslims whereas the Jabriyya, Qadriyya, Batiniyya, Bahaaism, Qadyanism, etc. are Bid'ah I'tiqaadi (innovation in belief) because they come into being after the blessed age and also claim themselves to be Muslims. (See End bliss Bliss, Vol. 2, Waqf Ihlas Publications, for a brief history of some of these sects).

BID'AH-E-HASANA: and its evidence from the Holy Quran.

Allah (Azza wa jalla) says in the Holy Quran:

"And We placed compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him (Jesus), but Monasticism they invented - We ordained it not for them - only seeking Allah's pleasure, and they observed it not with right observance." (al-Hadid: 27)

and then He (Azza wa jalla) says:

"So We gave those of them who believes their rewards." (al-Hadid: 27)

Read more: Bid’ah a Detailed Explanation

Is Commemorating the Auspiciousness of Historical Events From the Sunnah or is it Bid’ah?

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Alhamdulillahi Rabbil 'Alameaen was salaatu wa salaam 'alaa 'ibaadinil lathistafaa  Wa 'alaa Aalihi wa Sahbihi wa sallim

Allahu ta ‘ala has mentioned that certain days are auspicious and the Holy Last Messenger Prophet Muhammad Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim observed certain days with fasting etc. because of the auspiciousness of those days as certain historical events happening on those days.

The basis of all our actions are The Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of Sayyidinaa Muhammad Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim.  To understand clearly we need to understand the Sunnah.  The Sunnah is divided into three categories;

1. Qawli [what was said or speech]

2. Fa’ali [what was done or actions]

3. Taqriri [what others did that was not objected to]

These three categories are also the three categories of hadith

We are reminded by Allahu ta ‘ala to remember the favors [ni’mah] bestowed us”

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. 3:103

Allahu ta ‘ala is instructing us to recount those favors.  When the holy Prophet Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim made hijra to Madinah he observed the bani Israil [jews] fasting on the tenth of Muharram.  He had the sahaaba enquire why they were fasting on that particular day.  He was informed that they were fasting on that day because they had been led out of captivity by Sayyidina Musa ‘alaihi salaam on the tenth of Muharram and because of the auspicious nature of that day they were fasting.  This was indeed a favor from Allahu ta ‘ala.  Our beloved Prophet Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa salliminformed the companions to fast on the ninth and tenth of Muharram in observance of this auspicious day.  He said that we are more worth of Sayyidina Musa than the jews were.  This fast became an established Sunnah of the Holy Last Messenger Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim.

Sheikh Jalaluddin As Suyuti in “Al Hawl lil Fataawa” mentions that this is one of the precedence’s for commemorating the day Allah sent the mercy to all the worlds, not just mercy to Bani Israeel.  The day Allahu ta ‘ala sent  Rahmatulil ‘Alameen  as a mercy to all of creation is much more auspicious than the day Bani Israeel was shown mercy by being delivered and saved from the oppression of Pharaoh.  Maulana Jalaluddin and the Scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence [Fiqh]  mention that if there is no supposed clear evidence that a thing was not done, we look for evidence that something similar [precedence] to that action was done.

Read more: Is Commemorating the Auspiciousness of Historical Events Sunnah or Bid’ah?
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